Lace, a decorative openwork web, was first developed in Europe during the sixteenth century. Two distinct types of lace making—needle lace and bobbin lace—began simultaneously. Needle lace is made with a single needle and thread, while bobbin lace entails the plaiting of many threads. Lace thread was typically made from linen, and later silk or metallic gold threads, followed by cotton in the nineteenth century. Needle and bobbin laces were often named after the region or town where they were made. Preeminent lace making centers were established in Italy, Flanders, and France. The finest lace involved the talents and skills of three distinct specialists: the artist who created the designs on paper, the pattern maker who translated the designs onto parchment, and the lace maker who worked directly on the patterns to make the lace.
Lace was always an expensive luxury item because of its painstaking, time-consuming production. Lace styles evolved throughout the centuries in response to changes in fashion. Both men and women wore lace from its inception to the eighteenth centuries. It was often the most costly part of dress and reflected the sophisticated tastes of the aristocracy. Lace adorned women’s and men’s collars and cuffs, draped women’s shoulders, hands, heads, covered entire gowns, and decorated furnishings. The excessive sums of money spent on extravagant laces prompted many rulers to place restrictions on the wearing and importing of lace from other countries. Sumptuary laws, however, proved futile and the smuggling of foreign lace was widespread.
Europe’s desire for handmade lace continued unabated until the end of the eighteenth century. The French Revolution, which led to the destruction of the French court and its luxury industries, aided its demise. Further, the Industrial Revolution supported the development of new laces in the nineteenth century. In 1809, Englishman John Heathcoat invented a machine that could make the most tedious element of lace, the mesh ground. By the mid-1800s, machine and handmade laces were often combined into such forms as bobbin appliqué on machine-made net, and a variety of patterned machine laces became available. Even so, a demand for handmade lace remained. In response, novel laces were developed, including a simplified needle lace, Belgian Point de Gaze, as well as delicate French Chantilly bobbin lace. In addition to these laces, domestic techniques such as tatting and crochet were encouraged by women’s periodicals and printed patterns. Many of these laces aided in relief efforts, most notably, the Irish crochet lace cottage industry following the potato famine in Ireland.
From homemade tatting and crochet lace to impeccable Brussels à Vrai Réseau bobbin lace and French Point d’ Alençon, Lace: A Sumptuous History explores the wide range of laces made over the centuries. Edgings, lappets, parasols, gloves, collars, and dresses are some of the delightful forms in which these laces appear.
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The History of Lace
In the King James version of the Bible, Isaiah, Chapter 19, verse 9, states: ‘Moreover, they that work in fine flax and they that weave networks, shall be confounded’, and many of us certainly have been at times when the threads break and the mistake that you have only just noticed means undoing a lot of work to correct!
The most ancient specimens of lace in existence are pieces of knotted hairnets found in the tombs of Thebes and other parts of Egypt, some of which date back as far as 2500 BC. Several of these nets are adorned with tiny porcelain beads and figures strung amongst the meshes.
Bobbin laces and embroidered laces have been recovered from Egyptian Coptic tombs of the 3rd to 7th Centuries AD whilst other remains in the Coptic tombs indicate that the bobbin laces were made not on a pillow with pins, but on a wooden frame with pegs to hold the threads apart. Today we refer to this type of lace as Sprang Weaving.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, some lace garments were made for churchmen high in the ecclesiastical hierarchy but it was not until the 16th century that the use of lace became widespread.
There are several types of lace such as bobbin lace, needlelace, braid lace, tape lace, netting, embroidered lace, etc., which have their origins in many kinds of needlework and weaving and from the way that lace developed almost simultaneously in the maritime centers of Venice, Genoa and Ragusa, there is a theory that lace was brought from China, especially as the lace concerned had a distinctly oriental pattern to it and emerged as a fully developed art. The pattern books of the day and the surviving pieces of lace show none of the clumsy beginnings developing into the polished end result. Flanders has also claimed to be the birthplace of lace but they can only produce documents referring to lace from 1495 and the Italians have documentation dated 1476. Another theory is that the Crusaders brought it back with them from the Levant.
Needlelace started from the fine pulled and drawn thread work, cut work and darned netting typical of mediaeval Europe and in the 16th and 17th centuries, Italy was the main producer of this type of lace. In Venice, the lace was called Punto in Aria, literally stitches in the air, and was made from linen threads spun from the finest flax cultivated in the coastal regions of Holland, Belgium and France. These days, these strains of flax have been lost because the use of modern day fertilizers has meant that the plant fibers are no longer as fine as they once were.
Bobbinlace from Genoa developed into the present day style of Maltese, Cluny and Bedfordshire types of laces with lots of tallies and leaves which are a lacemakers’ nightmare because it is so difficult to work a series of them all of the same size and all with even edges to them—in fact, there is a saying that 1,000 tallies have to be worked before you can call yourself an expert in tally making—if this is so, then I have another 970 to go!
While Belgium has been regarded as the center for bobbinlace, there was a very close liaison between Italy and Belgium, the latter supplying the smooth linen thread to Italy for her needlelace industries and there is strong evidence to suggest that the development from cutwork to reticella and free needlelace occurred almost simultaneously in the two countries. The needlelace differed in style from area to area, coarse and heavy, light and dainty, floral and geometric, as fashion dictated, but it was a skillfully made product, treasured like jewelry and, in fact, costing almost as much as jewelry. Only the clergy and the very wealthy bought lace and when worn in society, it was regarded as an emblem of prestige. The Renaissance brought great wealth to Italy and the Venetian style of lace was favored throughout Europe. The heavy Venetian Gros Point was used for collars and neckbands and this sculptured lace, with its designs of stylized flowers and scrolls, echoed the grand style in the architecture and furnishings of the times, with even the churches being lavishly furnished with lace, devoted women spending years of their lives, and their eyesight, making lace to adorn altars, statues—and the priests.
The first traces of pillow or bobbin lace occur in pictures and in certain inventories of linen belonging to the d’Este and other Italian families from 1476 onwards but unfortunately one of the problems associated with inventory lists is the great number of technical names used in the 15th and 16th centuries for every kind of needlework. The historical side of these subjects has mostly been dealt with by men or by women unfamiliar in their technique, which has led to continual confusions with possibly only half a dozen of all the writers on the subject of lace capable of distinguishing the old printed patterns for needlepoint from those used for pillow lace whilst on the other hand those who had practical knowledge seldom had the education or the time to spend researching in the archives of museums of the day. It seems absurd to me that repeated references to lace, for instance: shoelaces, staylaces, etc., should have been quickly set down as proof of the existence of point and guipure laces, but this is what happened.
According to a book published in Zurich about the year 1550, bobbin lace was taken to what is now known as Germany in 1526 and there is the story of ten Westphalian Burghers who had cornered the market for teaching lace, but the elderly gentlemen were forced to wear linen bags over their long flowing beards in order to stop the hairs becoming caught up in the lace. At this time, severe sumptuary laws forbade the wearing of gold, silver, jewelry, cloth of gold, silks and other materials of value and these laws even applied to the dead who could only be buried in wool unless they had died from the plague in which case not many volunteers would have been found to offer to change the clothes of the deceased, so in these delicate laces made of plain white thread lay the opportunity of gratifying the taste for luxury.
With only a limited supply of metal pins, not much could be achieved in the way of pillow lace, as in England, during the reign of Henry VIII, the price of ordinary pins was about one penny each and because of this, fishbones and thorns were also used as pins. If pillow lace was made at all in Europe before 1520, it certainly was not in common use until some thirty years later as portraits from the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary in England, and of Francis I in France, show no traces of lace in them while those from the reign of Elizabeth I show the Queen and her courtiers loaded with it. The earliest French portrait showing lace is that of Henry II who is wearing a ruff with a simple narrow pillow lace edging.
Henry was the favorite son of the infamous Catherine de Medici who brought lacemakers (amongst other things) with her from Italy when she married the Dauphin of France. From that time on, French portraits show a tremendous variety of lace and lace patterns in them.
In England it is uncertain when lace was introduced although some claim that Queen Catherine of Aragon taught lacemaking to some of the inhabitants of Ampthill when she lived there in 1531, while awaiting her divorce from Henry VIII, and a pattern named after her is still in use in the district. She is also said to have burnt all her lace so that more lace could be ordered from the local women thus providing more work and income for the poor of the neighborhood so there is no wonder that some people confuse her with Catherine the Saint, who is the patron Saint of spinners, weavers and lacemakers and who gave her name to the Catherine Wheel firework because of the way she was martyred. St Catherine’s Day or Cattern’s Day, as it is sometimes known, is still celebrated by Lacemakers worldwide on November 25th and if you visit the Power House Museum, in Sydney, on the weekend nearest to this day, you will probably see lacemakers from the N.S.W. Branch of the Australian Lace Guild demonstrating their art.
Another theory is that people fleeing from religious persecution brought it with them to England in the 1560’s after the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre but since there are pattern books and portraits from before this date, this seems to me to be very unlikely. Some people also assert that lacemaking in different countries had separate origins, but with laces as different as Valenciennes, Russian and Cluny being formed from the same stitches and tools, this also seems very unlikely.
Incidentally, starch was developed during the reign of Elizabeth I which would have explained how her huge ruffs would have been able to frame her face the way they did.
Shakespeare mentions ‘free maids that weave their threads with bones…’ in Twelfth Night. James I of England had a ruff made of a length of lace 38 yards long which took many lacemakers months to complete but his wife was mortified when he ascended the throne because she could not afford to buy clothes suitable for a Queen and even more mortified when she was offered dresses from Queen Elizabeth’s wardrobe—after all, she was only in her twenties while the old Queen died in her seventies!
Throughout the 17th Century, the lace industry flourished but nowhere as much as it did in Italy with Venice being the center of the trade. Almost every European country was importing lace from Italy but it was very expensive and because of its prestige value, everyone who was anyone was anxious to own some, no matter how little. There is the story of the christening of a god daughter of King George II and Queen Charlotte of England who was wrapped in lace for the ceremony with the Archbishop officiating congratulating the parents on how quiet the baby was during the service—no wonder, the child had been wrapped up in so much lace, it had been smothered. Import taxes were high because most European countries had their own lace industries by this time and it was economically important to discourage the vast sums being spent in Italy on lace—a balance of payment problem even in those day. In some places only people above a certain rank were allowed to wear lace and then only of a certain width according to their status. Inspectors were positioned at city gates and if someone of a low rank tried to enter the city wearing lace which was considered to be too rich for them, then their lace was either trimmed down to the required width with scissors—or burnt.
Because of the huge amount of money being spent on importing lace from Italy into France, Colbert, Minister of Finance to Louis XIV, recommended that the Government should support and develop the French lace industry so the best lacemakers from Italy and Belgium were encouraged to settle in France and schools were set up in the established lace areas of Alencon, Arras and Sedan. Alencon and Arras were close to each other and it was here that the development of French Lace occurred. At first, the lace produced was identical to the Italian made laces but soon a new lace was being produced, much softer and with many more filling stitches, more ornate and luxurious. Point de France became very popular because of its draping qualities which made it ideal for cravats, wrist falls, collars and ruffles—popular, that is, with everyone but the Italians who ordered that if an Italian expert did not immediately return to Italy from overseas, then his or her nearest relative would be imprisoned. If they did return, then work would be found for them but if they didn’t— their relative was executed. By this time, however, the French lace industry was well and truly established so it didn’t really matter if the lacemakers did go home.
There are several sources at this time which tell us that poor children were taught lacemaking in an attempt to make them self supporting and in England their teacher was paid two pence for each child per week. A teacher would hold classes in a room of her cottage while she also supervised the more proficient in the production of saleable lace. In 1699 a child of six or seven could earn one shilling and eight pence a week and a good adult six shillings and six pence.
In Adelaide a few years ago, two classes of children were taught lacemaking and their work was entered in an international children’s competition in France. They won the first and second places‑the boys came first and the girls second!
One way of pricing the lace in later centuries was by covering the lace worked with coins but these were usually paid to the middleman who only passed on a small amount to the lacemaker. The lace dealers were the people who made the most money from lace and many of them insisted that the lacemakers bought their patterns and thread from them and when the lace had been made, the dealer would buy it paying with tokens which could only be spent at the dealers own store giving him a nice profit from all sides of the industry.
A working day at this time would have been from 6 am to 7 or 8 pm and after dark, 4 lacemakers would be sat around a small table on which one candle would be burning. Between each lacemaker and the candle, a glass flask of water would magnify the light from the candle and focus it onto the lace pillow to illuminate a tiny part of the work. On fine summer days groups of women would work outside but on winter days it was a different matter. Open fires were not allowed because the smoke from them would discolor and dirty the lace, so clay or metal pots filled with hot coals would be positioned under the women’s skirts to keep them warm. Unfortunately these hot coals could also set fire to the lacemakers clothing. Another way of keeping warm was to work in a room above a barn so that the warmth from the animals below heated the working room above.
The period of greatest prosperity was during the Napoleonic wars, when no foreign lace was being imported and exports to America were being restored after the War of Independence. Both men and women made lace and earned up to 25 shillings a week and in one village, 800 people out of a total population of 1,250 were involved in lacemaking. There was a decline in the second half of the 19th Century when machines took over and by 1862 a child of six earned 4 pence per week, paying half of it for schooling, while a girl of fifteen earned only 1 shilling per week for working twelve to fifteen hours a day.
Smuggling of lace was always a problem for the authorities and it was amazing the lengths people would go to indulge their passion for lace. It came into countries in coffins, wrapped around the corpses of expatriates, including an Archbishop of Westminster. In some cases, only the head, hands and feet of the deceased would be found in the coffin, the rest of the body had been discarded to make room for more lace. Some was wound around small pet dogs, which were swaddled in fur wraps in attempts to avoid detection. Another method was to hollow out loaves of bread and yet another was to bring it into the country with the smuggled brandy by the ‘Gentlemen’. Rudyard Kipling wrote a poem called ‘The Gentlemen, in which he mentioned ‘Brandy for the Parson, Baccy for the clerk, Laces for a Lady, Letters for a spy’, in the second verse and ‘French dolls trimmed with Valenciennes lace’ in the third. Penalties for smuggling were very heavy but the commodity was so valuable that many thought the risk well worth taking, even milady would smuggle lace into the country hidden in her muff.
Over the centuries, bodies on the battlefields of Europe were searched in the hope that valuable lace would be found and one wit suggested that the officers went into battle wearing lace because they wouldn’t be seen dead without it.
The classic period for both bobbin and needlelace was the 18th century when thread was at its finest and the techniques were fully developed. Needlelace tended to be rather stiff in texture with the edges padded with horsehair, so with fashion demanding a soft, draped look, it wasn’t long before it began to fall from favor.
Towards the end of the century bobbinlace began to come into its heyday but needlelace producers fought back by sewing their laces onto a light mesh and sometimes combined needle lace and bobbinlace onto the one background fabric. Cotton threads were beginning to replace the stiffer linen threads and softer laces were possible. By 1764, background net could be made on a machine and the revolution at the end of the 18th Century brought an end to the over indulgent era in France with the lacemaking industry suffering in the extreme. Many of the lacemakers went to the guillotine because of their connections with the aristocrats. Fashions had also changed and the lace industry had the bottom fall out of its market when the new lacemaking machines in the early part of the 19th century meant that lace could be produced at a much lower cost.
Lace had a brief revival with the new industrial rich who enjoyed the feel and appearance of genuine hand made lace and Queen Victoria helped, too, when she chose Honiton lace for her wedding dress and the royal christening robe being world famous. Many, many workers would have been employed in the making of these garments.
Designers of the 19th century began to look back at the sumptuous fashions of earlier centuries but by this time there were very few skilled workers left and so lace schools were reopened for training new ones. In a reversal of history, French lacemakers were encouraged to go to Burano near Venice to revive the needlelace industry there, but unfortunately the thread produced at this time was no where near as fine as that produced in earlier times and even today with all our technology the finest thread I have found is approximately twice as thick as that available at the height of the lace making era. When you consider that the finer thread was all handspun in a dark damp cellar so that it would remain white and fine, it is no wonder that many women were blind before they were 30.
There was once a number of lacemaking districts in England but there were only two of any importance: Honiton and the East Midlands. In the latter, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Northamptonshire were the main lacemaking counties along with the adjoining borders of Cambridgeshire, Hertfordshire, Berkshire and Oxfordshire with many families specializing in one or two patterns. This meant that instead of concentrating on making unfamiliar patterns, the lacemaker could produce much more lace by working automatically on a design with which she was thoroughly familiar.
Honiton lacemaking began as a cottage industry and during the 17th, 18th and 19th Centuries, provided a meagre livelihood for many thousands of workers, not only in and around Honiton, but over large parts of Devon and probably Somerset, too. The lace was sent to London by coach and as the coach left from Honiton any lace on board was called Honiton when, in fact, it could have been from anywhere around that district.
Social, industrial and economic changes brought about its gradual decline and final collapse as a commercial product during the early years of the 20th Century but, due to the far sightedness of the Devon County Council Education Committee, this beautiful old craft was taught, first in schools, and then at adult education classes and courses which continue today.
This continuity of teaching has ensured the survival of many of the old techniques that in some of our other traditional bobbin laces were lost when lacemaking went into eclipse and are only slowly being rediscovered.
Bobbins were originally made of birds’ bones and this is the origin of the alternate name for bobbin lace which is bone lace although some people cite fish bones being used in place of pins for this name.
Many bobbins were a record of the lacemaker’s family history, with births, deaths and marriages being recorded on the shaft of the bobbin. In the 19th Century in England a bundle of bobbins was found with the message ‘with love from Charles’ inscribed upon them—he must have been quite a lad in his day! Some bobbins recorded executions and at a public hanging, a huge crowd would gather while some lacemakers would pass the time away, until the condemned was brought out to meet his or her fate, by sitting and continuing with their work as traveling salesmen, like peddlers and probably gypsies, wandered around selling their wares including lace bobbins. Small children would be told that if the behaved themselves then they too would be taken to see the execution.
Other bobbins would be inscribed with messages like ‘kiss me quick before my mother comes’ or ‘if I like boys that is nothing to no one’ while yet another had ‘I hate men’ on it, others, bible texts. I own quite a few inscribed bobbins on my lace pillows including one with the saying ‘ the things children wear out faster than shoes are parents’. I also have bobbins commemorating the dates of my daughters’ births and others with small Formula 1 cars painted on them.
In order to make the time pass more quickly the workers would sing songs or ‘tells’ as they were called. ‘Jack be nimble, Jack be quick’ is one and ‘I had a little nutting tree’ another. Others would be counting down from 20 or so and each time a pin was inserted in the work, the number would go down one. Sometimes the workers would have to work so many pins before they could speak or lift their eyes up from the pillow and anyone caught out doing this would have to start all over again. The teachers and supervisors encouraged these songs because they made the children and women work faster.
The beads on the ends of the bobbins are called spangles and are found mainly on the English bobbins whilst the continental bobbins usually have a bulbous end on them instead, serving same purpose as the beads in adding a weight to tension the thread. Sometimes special beads were used to ward off the evil eye or to guard against making mistakes, or even to ease arthritic hands much as some people use copper bracelets today. The circle of beads would also stop the bobbins from rolling all over the pillow during the working of the lace.
Nottingham has become world famous for its lace which was made on frames and in a reversal of history, this type of lace was taken to the continent by a group of lacemakers who became known as the Calais Lacemakers.
Maintaining the luxurious value of lace, Schweitzer Linen offers Zara, an exquisitely light and airy shawl made even more ethereal by a scalloped edge of floral lace. Embellishing three edges, the lace is expertly finished with an eyelash fringe.
Schweitzer Linen also uses lace as beautiful accents to most of their Intimates Collections. Shown left is Mina, a sensually soft wool/silk blend cami with a wide décolletage of breathtaking lace, and satiny piped edges. Shown right is Agatha, a soft skinny-rib knit cami made in Italy with borders of gorgeous lace.
Double Dare, is an eye-catching cami and mini shorts with a bounty of wispy scalloped lace
Film Noir is one of the sexiest bras ever, with the tantalizing look of filmy Black lace sheer tulle over a Nude background.
Incorporating lace treatments in the Schweitzer Linen Nightwear collection is Lady Lilac (left) and Kaylee (right) — two new fall chemises with dramatic flowery lace that creating an asymmetrical map of delight along the neckline and hem.
All this is simply a small preview of the many lace treatments used in Schweitzer Linen Nightwear, Intimates and Daywear Collections. If you love the look of lace, shopping on schweitzerlinen.com is an absolute must!
Source: LACE – Its Origin and History. Samuel L. Goldenberg, 1904.